An abstract is a summary of a professional scientific paper. It appears at the beginning of the paper and includes the following information: a) the problem studied, b) the key findings, and c) their significance. Below are helpful questions to consider when writing an abstract.
Statement of the Problem:
- Do the first two sentences set the context and engage the reader’s interest?
- What problem does the summarized paper address?
Summary of Key Findings:
- Does the abstract include the article’s essential findings? Is there anything extraneous that should be left out? Does the summary lack any key information?
- Are the results presented in a logical order?
- Is the abstract unified by clear connections between the results?
Significance and Application:
- Does the abstract correctly identify and clearly express applications that are appropriate to the paper’s content? What are they?
- Are these statements clear, precise, and specific?
General Format and Style:
- Is the abstract a single paragraph?
- Are most of the sentences simple, declarative statements?
- Avoid the use of adjectives and adverbs, unless they are quantitative.
- Avoid vague and general statements that do not convey specific information.
- Use standard conventions of grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
Reference: Koopman, Philip. "How to Write an Abstract."
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