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William Struthers, Ph.D.

Neuroscience Certificate

Professor of Psychology
On Faculty since 1999

Phone: (630)752-7046
Fax: (630)752-7033


Ph.D. Biopsychology, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 2000.

M.A. Biopsychology, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 1996.

B.A. Psychology, Illinois Wesleyan University, 1992.

About William Struthers

Dr. Struthers' lab research interests are in the neural mechanisms that underlie behavioral arousal and the processing of novel environments. His research employs the use of stereotaxic surgery, immunochemistry, and behavioral manipulations to investigate gene expression in the cingulate cortex and basal ganglia.

Dr. Struthers professional memberships include the Society for Neuroscience, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience, Association for Psychological Science, and International Neuroethics Society. He recently received a grant from the Faraday Institute for Science and Religion, an interdisciplinary research enterprise based at St Edmund's College, Cambridge University (UK) to examine uses and abuses of neuroscience research in society. Dr. Struthers was named a Visiting Research Fellow to Biola University's Center for Christian Thought in 2014 for his work on the impact of sexual exploitation on spirituality. As a Visiting Scholar in Science and Religion at Oxford he is currently researching neuroscience and culture as part of the Oxford Interdisciplinary Seminars in Science and Religion: Bridging the Two Cultures of Science and the Humanities. He is actively involved in the campus Animal Care and Use Committee and has served as chair of the Institutional Review Board - two committees that oversee the ethical treatment of animals and human subjects in research.

Dr. Struthers married his wife in 1993 and they have been blessed with three children. Born in Chicago, he grew up in northwestern Pennsylvania and is an avid fan of all Pittsburgh sports teams (Steelers, Penguins, and Pirates). He enjoys the writings of J.R.R. Tolkien and Neil Gaiman, watching Battlestar Galactica (Reimagined) and Orphan Black, and playing bass guitar. In his free time he reads comic books, supports Arsenal in the Premier League, and listens to The Call, Joe Satriani, and U2.

Courses Taught

  • Introduction to Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Introduction to Psychopharmacology
  • Neuroscience and the Soul
  • Men and Addictions
  • History of Psychology
  • Psychopharmacology (Graduate Program)
  • Biological Bases of Behavior (Graduate Program)
  • Teaching of Psychology Seminar (Graduate Program)

Membership in Professional Societies

Research Interests

Dr. Struthers' animal lab research is on the effects of environmental enrichment on neural responses to novelty challenges. His clinical research is in the area of compulsive sexuality and pornography use. In addition to this empirical work, Dr. Struthers' theoretical research interests are in the areas of neuroethics, the biological bases of spirituality and personhood, and science/faith dialogue issues. Dr. Struthers also speaks internationally as an advocate against various forms of sexual exploitation (i.e. pornography, prostitution, sex trafficking).


Books and Selected Book Chapters

Struthers, William M., Ansell, Kerryn, and Wilson, Adam (in press) The Neurobiology of Stress and Trauma. Treating Trauma in Christian Counseling. Ed. Gingrich, Heather and Gingrich, Fred. InterVarsity Press; Downers Grove, IL.

Struthers, William M. (submitted). The Pharmacology of Mystical Experiences. In: The Neurology of Religion, Ed. Alasdair Coles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Struthers, William M. (2012). Gaming Addiction. In: Addictions and Substance Abuse. Ed. Kamienny Montvilo, Robin. Salem Press: Pasadena, CA.

Struthers, William M. (2012). Pornography Addiction. In: Addictions and Substance Abuse. Ed. Kamienny Montvilo, Robin.Salem Press: Pasadena, CA.

Struthers, William M. (2012) Biopsychology and the Soul. In: Delight in Creation: Scientists Share Their Work with the Church. Eds. Haarsma, Deborah B. and Hoezee, Scott; Center for Excellence in Preaching: Grand Rapids, MI.

Struthers, W.M. (2009). Wired for Intimacy: How Pornography Hijacks the Male Brain. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL. 

Struthers, W.M. (2005). What is the Mind-Brain Problem?. In: Not Just Science. Eds. Chappell, Dorothy F. and Cook, E. David. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, MI.


Selected Articles, Papers and Book Reviews

Fishbein, Mark, Benton, Kathryn, and Struthers, William M. (2016) Mealtime Disruption and Caregiver Stress in Referrals to an Outpatient Feeding Clinic. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 40(5), 636-645.

Mulhauser, K, Struthers, W.M., Hooks, J, and Pyykkonen, B. (2014) Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task Among a Hypersexual Sample. Journal of Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 21, 170-183.

Struthers, William M. (2014) Comic Books, Mock Trials and Zombies: Engaging Integrative Biopsychology Themes in the Classroom. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42(2) 188-199.

Struthers, William M.; Hagan, Tim; Mulhauser, Kyle; and Schuchardt, Read. (2014) The Use of Brain Images When Evaluating Religious and Non-Religious Media Reports. American Journal of Bioethics: Neuroscience, 5(3), pg 48-49

The Physical Nature of Christian Life: Neuroscience, Psychology, & the Church, by Warren S. Brown and Brad D. Strawn; Cambridge University Press, Reviewed by Struthers, William M. (2013) Christian Scholar’s Review, 43(1), 92-94.

Kipp, Mike; Kipp, Mike A. Jr. and Struthers, William M. (2013) Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction and Anisometropic Amblyopia. Journal of the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabisums. Vol 17(3): 235-8.

Struthers, William M. (2012) False Intimacy. Youthwork, Vol 2 (20), pg 18-21.

Struthers, William M. (2011) The Basics of the Brain, e-News Monthly, American Association of Christian Counselors Newsletter, July.

Struthers, W.M. (2011) Pornography Addiction and the Brain: Its Destructive Nature and How to Overcome It. Enrichment Journal, Vol 16 (3), pg 80-85.

Selected Presentations

Struthers, William M. (2016) Sexual Brains and Clinical Contexts. Reformed Theological Seminary, Apr 22, Orlando, FL.

Struthers, William M. (2016) Neurological Vulnerability, Plasticity, and Trajectory. Set Free Summit, Josh McDowell Ministries, Apr 6, Charlotte, NC. 

Stuthers, William M. (2016) The (Neuro)Science of Pornography. James Madison University, Apr 29, Harrisonburg, VA.

Struthers, William M. and Hawkins, Dawn (2016) On Harms and Hopes: The Myriad Injustices of Pornography. University of Notre Dame, Apr 14, South Bend, IN.

Struthers, William M. and Van Dyke, David (2016) Pornography, Human Trafficking and the Family. Grand Valley State University, Mar 24, Allendale, MI.

Haviley, Corinne, Reid Tinio, Gina, Pugliese, Karen, Czyzewski, Katherine, and Struthers, William. (2015) Reducing Moral Distress in Nursing- Do Interventions Really Work? American Nurses Credentialing Center National Magnet Conference, Atlanta, GA.

Struthers, W.M.; Medrano, S.P; and Ansell, K. (2015) Effects of Enriched Housing on the Expression of Novelty-Shuttling Induced Fos-Like Immunoreactivity in the Cingulate Cortex and Basal Ganglia. Society for Neuroscience 46th Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Ross, Kelly, Addleman, Doug, Early, Amy, Reyes, Colby, Baker, Stephanie, O’Hora, Haley, Phinney, Ray, Struthers, William, Whitney, Heather; and Thom, Nathaniel. (2015) Behavioral and ERP responses to emotionally evocative images among high and low trait anger college age men.  Society for Neuroscience 46th Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Struthers, William M. (2015) Reconsidering Behavioral Addictions. American Association of Christian Counselors World Conference, Nashville, TN.

Struthers, William M. (2015) The Effects of Pornography on Men: A Neuropsychological Perspective. Seeing with the Eyes of the Heart Conference, March 26, University of Notre Dame/St. Mary’s College, South Bend, IN.

Ahmad, Imran, Struthers, William, and Chenelle, Andrew. (2014) A Retrospective Chart Review: The Role of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in Chiari Malformations. Chicago Medical School Summer Research Consortium Conference, Oct 31, Chicago, IL. 

Struthers, William M., Mulhauser, Kyler R.W., and Magers, Andrew. (2014). Self-Identifying as a Pornography Addict: Religiosity, Mindfulness, and First Exposure Influences. Symposium on Religion and Sexuality. Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Aug 7, Washington, DC.

Struthers, William M. (2014) Sexual Exploitation and Spiritual Barriers: A Neurobiological Framework. Third Annual Center for Christian Thought Conference: Psychology and Spiritual Formation, Biola University, May 9, La Mirada, CA.

Struthers, William M. (2014) Female Neuro-sexuality: From Enmeshed Addict to Virtual Infidelity. International Association of Certified Sex Addiction Specialists Meeting, Sexual Addiction and Healthy Sexuality Conference: Redeeming Sexuality and Intimacy. May 1, Dallas, TX.

Struthers, William M. (2014) Pleasure Without Presence: Exploring the Psychological and Spiritual Impact of Online Sexuality and Entertainment. Ecclesia and Ethics II Conference, Corban University, Salem, OR.

Struthers, William M. (2014) Addiction. Mind Your Heart Conference, Biola University’s Center for Christian Thought, La Mirada, CA.

Struthers, William M, Hagan, Tim, Mulhauser, Kyle and Schuchardt, Read (2013) The Use of Brain Images When Evaluating Religious and Non-Religious Media Reports. International Neuroethics Society Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA.

Struthers, William M. and Buchheit, Sarah. (2013) The Neuroscience of Sex and Gender: Counseling Implications of Neurosexism. American Association of Christian Counselors World Conference, Nashville, TN.

Struthers, William M., Cressman, James, and Laaser, Mark (2013). Wired for Intimacy. Continuing Education Workshop for the American Association of Christian Counselors World Conference, Nashville, TN. 

Mulhauser, K., Wenzel, B., Pyykkonen, B., and Struthers, W. M. (2013) Frontal Executive Functioning in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Compulsive Sexuality. 11th Annual Conference of American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Chicago, IL.

Struthers, William M., Mulhauser, Kyler, Smith, Lia, and Campos, Darlene (2013) The Persuasiveness of Brain Imaging and Religious Commitment. Association for Psychological Science 25th Annual Convention, Washington, D.C.

Struthers, William M. (2013) Secondhand Sexuality and Your Brain. Student Life, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Struthers, William M. (2013) Cybersex and Men: When Looking for Sex Online is Not About Sex.  International Association of Certified Sex Addiction Specialists National Meeting, Sexual Addiction and Healthy Sexuality Conference: Redeeming Sexuality and Intimacy, Nashville, TN.

Struthers, William M. (2013) Brain Organization Theory, Society and Sex. International Association of Certified Sex Addiction Specialists National Meeting, Sexual Addiction and Healthy Sexuality Conference: Redeeming Sexuality and Intimacy, Nashville, TN.

Struthers, William M. (2012) Surrogates, Nuns, and Novels: Using Literature in the Neuroscience Classroom. Society for Neuroscience 42nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Struthers, William M. (2012) What’s the Harm? The Impact of Pornography on Adolescent Brain Development. British Parliament, House of Commons, Committee Meeting for the Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection, Chaired by MP Claire Perry, May 23, London, England.

Struthers, William M. (2012) Neuroscience and the New High Priests. Persons and Their Brains. Ian Ramsey Centre for Science and Religion, St Anne's College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Please contact Dr. Struthers if you would like a copy of his Curriculum Vita.