Wheaton logo 2020 color version also for mobile

Medieval Lit Bibliography - Biblical Typology


Besserman, Lawrence L. The Legend of Job in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
This source covers the biblical, apocryphal, and ecclesiastical traditions associated with Job. It also traces the medieval literary heritage. Also included are plates, notes, bibliography, and index.

Davidson, Gustav. A Dictionary of Angels. New York: The Free Press, 1967.
Generally this material comes from sources outside scripture. It is organized alphabetically, with bibliography and interesting appendices.

Jameson, Anna Brownell. History of our Lord. 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1872.
The focus of this work is on biblical events, characters, and types. In addition to describing these, she discusses their representation in art. Not everything is medieval, but she indicates sources.

Jameson, Anna Brownell. Legends of the Madonna. Ed. Estelle M. Hurd. New York: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1883.
This work gives the origin and history of various symbols and attributes of the Virgin Mary. Again she discusses these as they are represented in art.

Guldan, Ernst. Eva und Maria. Groz-Köln: Verlag Hermann Böhlaus NACHF, 1966.
Although this work is in German, it is the standard source on the various traditions that link Eve and Mary. It is organized around themes which are illustrated with detailed photos of representations in art.

Schiller, Gertrud. Iconography of Christian Art. Trans. Janet Seligman. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1968. 704.948 Sch333i
Vol. 1 covers the Incarnation and early appearances of Christ. Vol. 2 focuses on the Passion. For every topic she covers, Schiller gives the biblical story, the art history, and a detailed description of the paintings which depict that story. Very scholarly and helpful. Not all of the volumes out have been translated into English, but even in German they are helpful.

See Also

Audsley, W. and G. Handbook of Christian Symbolism.

Child, Heather and Dorothy Colles. Christian Symbols Ancient and Modern.

Ferguson, George. Signs and Symbols in Christian Art.

Hulme, F. Edward. The History, Principles and Practice of Symbolism in Christian Art.

Kirschbaum, Engelbert. Lexicon der Christlichen Ikonographie.

Metford, J. C. J. Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend.

Reau, Louis. Iconographie de L'Art Chretien.

Sill, Gertrude Grace. A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art.

Selected Secondary Sources

Auerbach, Erich. "Typological Symbolism in Medieval Literature," Yale French Studies 9 (1952):3-10.

Hollander, Robert. "Typology and Secular Literature: Some Medieval Problems and Examples," in Earl Miner. Literary Uses of Typology from the Late Middle Ages to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Lampe, G. W. H. "The Reasonableness of Typology" in Essays on Typology. Studies in Biblical Theology, no. 22. Naperville, IL: Alex R. Allenson, Inc., 1957.

McNally, Robert E. The Bible in the Early Middle Ages. Occasional Essays for Theology, no. 4. Westminster, Maryland: The Newman Press, 1959.

Woollcombe, K. J. "The Biblical Origins and Patristic Development of Typlogy," in Essays on Typology. Studies in Biblical Theology, no. 22. Naperville, IL: Alex R. Allenson, Inc., 1957.