Wheaton College Editorial Style Guide
These editorial style guidelines are provided to assist you in writing and editing Wheaton College publications. They serve as the authority for editorial style for the campus, taking precedence over other style manuals.
When questions arise that are not covered in this manual, you can find answers in these resources:
Table of Contents
- Academic Degrees
- Academic Disciplines, Departments, and Titles
- Adviser vs. Advisor
- Alumna, Alumnus, Alumni
- Alumni, Honorary, or Non-Degreed
- Alumni Names, Degrees, and Class Years
- Bible Books
- Bible Verse Quotations and References
- Bible Versions
- College Archives, Buswell Library
- College, the
- Commas in a Series (Serial Comma, Oxford Comma)
- Conservatory of Music
- Emeritus Status
- For Christ and His Kingdom
- Initials for Personal Names
- Titles of Events and Works of Visual and Performing Art
- Unbiased Language
- Wheaton's Academic Entities
- Academic Divisions
- Centers and Institutes
- Billy Graham Center
- Center for Applied Christian Ethics
- Center for Urban Engagement
- English Language Institute of China
- HoneyRock, the Outdoor Center for Leadership Development of Wheaton College
- Humanitarian Disaster Institute
- Institute for Cross-Cultural Training
- Opus: The Art of Work
- Marion E. Wade Center
- Wheaton Center for Faith, Politics, and Economics
- Wheaton Center for Early Christian Studies
- Other Academic Entities
1. Academic Degrees
Following are the correct ways to abbreviate academic degrees:
- B.A. or B.S. = Bachelor of Arts/Science
- B.D. = Bachelor of Divinity
- B.M. = Bachelor of Music
- B.M.E. = Bachelor of Music Education
- D.A. = Doctor of Arts
- D.D. = Doctor of Divinity
- D.M. = Doctor of Music
- D.M.A. = Doctor of Musical Arts
- J.D. = Juris Doctor
- L.H.D. = Doctor of Humanities
- Litt.D. = Doctor of Letters
- LL.D. = Doctor of Laws
- M.A. = Master of Arts
- M.D. = Medical Doctor
- M.Div. = Master of Divinity
- M.F.A. = Master of Fine Arts
- M.M. = Master of Music
- M.T.S. = Master of Theological Studies
- Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy
- Psy.D. = Doctor of Psychology
- Th.M. = Master of Theology
Never capitalize degrees when they are referred to in general terms.
doctorate, doctoral, master’s, bachelor’s, master of science, bachelor of arts
2. Academic Disciplines, Departments, and Titles
Disciplines should be lowercased, unless they are a part of headline text. Of course, proper nouns within the name must be capitalized.
- He is an intercultural studies professor.
- Her degree is in Middle Eastern studies.
- I am going to my English class.
Course titles are capitalized, not italicized, and without quotes.
- Jeffry Davis, associate professor of English, teaches the course Classical and Early British Literature.
If the name of a department or office is used as an adjective, it should be lowercased. If it is used as a noun, it should be capitalized.
- The lecture is held each year in the business and economics department.
- The Department of Business and Economics is housed in the Memorial Student Center.
- Homecoming was hosted by Alumni Relations.
- The alumni relations office hosted Homecoming.
Capitalize formal titles when used immediately before a name; lowercase formal titles when used alone or in constructions that separate them from a name by commas.
Use lowercase for all terms that are job descriptions rather than job titles.
- Professor of English Emerita E. Beatrice Batson
- E. Beatrice Batson, professor of English emerita
- Knoedler Chair of Biblical and Theological Studies Dr. Daniel Block
- Daniel Block, Knoedler chair of biblical and theological studies
The abbreviations for eras are set in small caps with periods. a.d. always precedes the year, but b.c. will follow the year.
When citing an address within body copy, spell out Avenue, Boulevard, Drive, Road, Street, and the like. Spell out all street names.
For mailing addresses: use USPS rules (no punctuation within lines).
501 College Avenue
Wheaton IL 60187-5501
For directions, event location, and other non-mailing purposes: list all pertinent location information and exclude ZIP code. "Wheaton College" must be included on any publication that will be read externally or where the association with Wheaton College is not already clear.
Stack non-mailing addresses like so:
Billy Graham Center
501 College Avenue
501 College Avenue
Todd M. Beamer Student Center
501 College Avenue
When used in the body copy, locations should be formatted like so:
- The event will be held in room 339 of Blanchard Hall, Wheaton College, located at 501 College Avenue in Wheaton, Illinois.
- Our office is on College Avenue.
- The parking lot is on the corner of Lincoln Avenue and N Washington Street.
- Illinois and Iowa are neighboring states.
- The lecture will take place in Barrows Auditorium in the Billy Graham Center at Wheaton College.
- The performance will take place in Edman Memorial Chapel at Wheaton College.
- The recital takes place in the Recital Hall (Room 132) located in the Armerding Center for Music and the Arts at Wheaton College.
4.1. Cities and States
Spell out the names of all 50 U.S. states when used in the body copy, whether standing alone or with a city.
Only abbreviate state names in tabular material, captions, lists, or where space is especially limited.
Use the AP state abbreviations when an abbreviation is required.
Use the two-letter USPS abbreviations only with full mailing addresses, including ZIP code.
Following are the AP state abbreviations with USPS state abbreviations in parentheses:
- Alabama: Ala. (AL)
- Alaska (AK)
- Arizona: Ariz. (AZ)
- Arkansas: Ark. (AR)
- California: Calif. (CA)
- Colorado: Colo. (CO)
- Connecticut: Conn. (CT)
- Washington D.C.: D.C. (DC)
- Delaware: Del. (DE)
- Florida: Fla. (FL)
- Georgia: Ga. (GA)
- Hawaii (HI)
- Idaho (ID)
- Illinois: Ill. (IL)
- Indiana: Ind. (IN)
- Iowa (IA)
- Kansas: Kan. (KS)
- Kentucky: Ky. (KY)
- Louisiana: La. (LA)
- Maine (ME)
- Maryland: Md. (MD)
- Massachusetts: Mass. (MA)
- Michigan: Mich. (MI)
- Minnesota: Minn. (MN)
- Mississippi: Miss. (MS)
- Missouri: Mo. (MO)
- Montana: Mont. (MT)
- Nebraska: Neb. (NE)
- Nevada: Nev. (NV)
- New Hampshire: N.H. (NH)
- New Jersey: N.J. (NJ)
- New Mexico: N.M. (NM)
- New York: N.Y. (NY)
- North Carolina: N.C. (NC)
- North Dakota: N.D. (ND)
- Ohio (OH)
- Oklahoma: Okla. (OK)
- Oregon: Ore. (OR)
- Pennsylvania: Pa. (PA)
- Rhode Island: R.I. (RI)
- South Carolina: S.C. (SC)
- South Dakota: S.D. (SD)
- Tennessee: Tenn. (TN)
- Texas (TX)
- Utah (UT)
- Vermont: Vt. (VT)
- Virginia: Va. (VA)
- Washington: Wash. (WA)
- West Virginia: W.Va. (WV)
- Wisconsin: Wis. (WI)
- Wyoming: Wyo (WY).
The following are stand-alone cities for which state names are never necessary: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington.
5. Adviser vs. Advisor
6. Alumna, Alumnus, Alumni
Alternate variations of the term alumni including alum, alumn, etc. are inaccurate.
7. Alumni, Honorary, or Non-Degreed
Persons who have attended Wheaton for at least two semesters are considered “non-degreed alumni” but are alumni nevertheless. Generally, the class year for non-degreed alumni is the year they would have graduated; however, check Banner for each individual’s preferred class year.
Graduate School students who completed at least two semesters of study but didn’t receive a degree are to be designated as “GS” followed by the year they would have graduated. The Alumni Association may also give “honorary alumna(us)” status to some individuals, designated in alumni materials as "hon" following the person’s name with no class year.
8. Alumni Names, Degrees, and Class Years
(for use in materials whose audience is primarily alumni)
When the class years of alumni follow their names, it is generally not necessary to use “B.A.” or “B.S.” to distinguish the degree. However, master’s, doctoral, and honorary degrees are to be specified, along with the class year. If alumni have more than one degree, include all of the degrees with the class year. Maiden names of married alumnae are to be included. The apostrophe before class year abbreviations is the same as a closing single quotation mark: ’ (compare: an opening single quotation mark: ‘ ).
- Timothy A. Stoner ’82
- John D. Frame B.A. ’38, B.S. ’38
- Jane A. McNally ’39, M.A. ’44
- Ruth Kraft Strohschien ’27, L.H.D. ’72
- Billy Graham ’43, Litt.D. ’56
- Carl F. H. Henry ’38, M.A. ’41, Litt.D. ’68
If the century of the class year could be in question, do not abbreviate.
- Charles A. Blanchard 1870
- Ellen Congdon Kellogg 1902
- Adriel Driver Congdon ’02 (as in 2002)
Nicknames should be recorded in quotes, following the given name.
- John “Jack” Doe ’12
- Cassandra “Cassie” Smith ’01
When a husband and wife are both alumni, the husband’s first name and class year precedes the wife’s full name (including maiden name) and class year.
- John ’05 and Jane Smith Doe ’04
If the husband is an alumnus and his wife is not, there is no need to include her maiden name.
- John ’67 and Jane Doe
If the wife is an alumna and her husband is not, his name is written with no class year, followed by her full name (first, maiden, married) and class year.
Do not use the ampersand to replace “and” unless it is part of the actual name of an organization or company.
10. Bible Books
Bible books should be spelled out in running text but abbreviated in parenthetical use:
- Genesis (Gen.)
- Exodus (Exod.)
- Leviticus (Lev.)
- Numbers (Num.)
- Deuteronomy (Deut.)
- Joshua (Josh.)
- Judges (Judg.)
- 1 Samuel (1 Sam.)
- 2 Samuel (2 Sam.)
- 1 Kings (1 Kings)
- 2 Kings (2 Kings)
- 1 Chronicles (1 Chron.)
- 2 Chronicles (2 Chron.)
- Nehemiah (Neh.)
- Psalms (Ps.)
- Plural of Psalms (Pss.)
- Proverbs (Prov.)
- Ecclesiastes (Eccles.)
- (Song of Solomon (Song of Sol.)
- Isaiah (Isa.)
- Jeremiah (Jer.)
- Lamentations (Lam.)
- Ezekiel (Ezek.)
- Daniel (Dan.)
- Hosea (Hos.)
- Obadiah (Obad.)
- Jonah (Jon.)
- Micah (Mic.)
- Nahum (Nah.)
- Habakkuk (Hab.)
- Zephaniah (Zeph.)
- Haggai (Hag.)
- Zechariah (Zech.)
- Malachi (Mal.)
- Matthew (Matt.)
- Romans (Rom.)
- 1 Corinthians (1 Cor.)
- 2 Corinthians (2 Cor.)
- Galatians (Gal.)
- Ephesians (Eph.)
- Philippians (Phil.)
- Colossians (Col.)
- 1 Thessalonians (1 Thess.)
- 2 Thessalonians (2 Thess.)
- 1 Timothy (1 Tim.)
- 2 Timothy (2 Tim.)
- Philemon (Philem.)
- Hebrews (Heb.)
- 1 Peter (1 Pet.)
- 2 Peter (2 Pet.)
- 1 John
- 2 John
- 3 John
- Revelation (Rev.)
11. Bible Verse Quotations and References
Make certain all quoted material is accurate, down to the punctuation—unless it is clear that the quoted material is the author’s own paraphrase. Check every Scripture reference in text, even if you think you know the reference. To find most common versions of Scripture, please visit here.
Most Scripture quotations should be followed by specific references. Place the ending quotation marks after the verse or verses quoted and then follow with the reference in parentheses. The closing punctuation (usually a period) follows the reference and is placed outside the parentheses.
- John 10:3, 5 (refers to verses 3 and 5)
- John 10:3-5 (refers to verses 3, 4, and 5)
- In 2 Timothy 2:15 (NIV), Paul is exhorting Timothy to…
- Paul exhorts Timothy, “Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved” (1 Tim. 2:15a, NIV).
12. Bible Versions
- 1 Tim. 2:15, esv.
12.1. Bible Version Abbreviations
- American Standard Version (ASV)
- English Standard Version (ESV)
- Good News Bible (GNB)
- Jerusalem Bible
- King James Version (KJV)
- Living Bible (LB)
- The Message (THEMESSAGE)
- New American Bible (NAB)
- New American Standard Bible (NASB)
- New English Bible (NEB)
- New International Version (NIV)
- New Living Translation (NLT)
- New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)
- New King James Version (NKJV)
- Reader’s Digest Bible
- Revised English Bible
- Revised Standard Version (RSV)
- Today’s New International Version (TNIV)
13.1. Capitalization of Buildings/Locations
Campus buildings and locations should not be capitalized unless they are official names.
13.2. Capitalization of Common Words
- Alumni Board
- alumni board members
- Board of Trustees
- Trustee Board
- Wheaton College Board of Trustees
13.3. Capitalization of Religious Terms
- apostle Peter, et al.
- body of Christ (the church)
- Book of Genesis, et al.
- church (body of Christ)
- church (building)
- church (service)
- church universal
- The word church is capitalized when it forms part of a church or communion (denomination) name but not when it stands alone or is used to denote a religious organization of the world or a particular country.
- Michael’s Roman Catholic Church, the Roman Catholic Church (but: the Catholic church)
- the Reformed Church in America
- the Church of England (but: Reformed churches, Anglican church, Presbyterian church)
- Cross, the (event, not wood object)
- Epistle to the Romans
- Epistles, the
- evangelical, evangelicalism
- God’s Word (Bible)
- Good News, the (the gospel)
- gospel (adj.)
- gospel (John’s gospel, et al.)
- Gospel of John (et al.)
- gospel, the (Good News)
- Gospels, the
- he, him, his (i.e., deity; lowercase pronouns for persons of the Trinity unless the meaning is unclear or ambiguous)
- kingdom, the
- kingdom of God
- kingdom of heaven
- Psalm (but: Psalm 30; Psalms 30-31)
- psalmist, the
- Reformed theology
- Resurrection, the
- Scriptures(s) (Bible)
- Sunday school
- Trinity, the
- Word, the (Bible or Christ)
- Word of God (Bible)
14. College Archives, Buswell Library
15. College, the
When the words the College are used instead of Wheaton College, the word College is capitalized. If used as an adjective, the word college is lowercased.
- the college administration
- the college community
- After she graduated from the College, she attended Georgetown University for a master’s in linguistics.
Leave a single character space, not two spaces, after colons used within a sentence. Capitalize what follows a colon if it is a complete sentence, but lowercase what follows the colon if it is not a sentence.
- He revealed the truth: The senior bench was in his trunk.
- We requested the following items: chairs, tables, and tablecloths.
17. Commas in a Series (Serial Comma, Oxford Comma)
Elements in a series of three or more should be separated by commas, and when a conjunction joins the last two elements, a comma should be inserted before the conjunction.
- The kindness, consideration, and personal interest of Wheaton’s professors made a lasting impression on him.
- Each of the three authors places emphasis on creating spaces that are slow, reflective, quiet, and sacred.
When elements in a series are long, complex, and carry their own punctuation, they should be separated by a semicolon instead of a comma.
- Adams Hall has two galleries for student and professional exhibits; studio spaces for painting, photography, and graphic design; and six smart classrooms.
18. Conservatory of Music
19.1. Abbreviations for Days of the Week
- Sunday (Sun.)
- Monday (Mon.)
- Wednesday (Wed.)
- Thursday (Thurs.)
- Friday (Fri.)
- Saturday (Sat.)
Particular centuries are spelled out and lowercased.
- the twenty-first century
- a twentieth-century phenomenon
- the eighth and ninth centuries
- from the twelfth to the fourteenth century
- the nineteen hundreds
- the 1960s.
Abbreviations for months:
- January (Jan.)
- February (Feb.)
- March (Mar.)
- April (Apr.)
- May (May)
- June (June)
- July (July)
- August (Aug.)
- September (Sept.)
- October (Oct.)
- November (Nov.)
- December (Dec.)
19.5. Month and Year
Do not place a comma between month and year if the day of the month is omitted. Always spell out the month.
- We changed typesetters in March 1983.
19.6. Month, Day, and Year
When the usual month-day-year sequence is used, the year is always set off within commas, and the day is always listed as an Arabic figure without st, nd, rd, or th.
- Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, and became the 22nd and 24th President of the United States.
19.7. Seasons and Semesters
In general, lowercase the names of seasons and semesters (autumn, fall, spring, summer, winter), even when used with a year.
When abbreviating a particular year, use an apostrophe to show the omission: class of ’80. When connecting multiple years with a hyphen, only include the last two digits of the final year, except if the last year is in a different century from the first year.
20. Emeritus Status
Titles for professors who have been granted emeritus status should be written in the following style as per the college catalog:
21. For Christ and His Kingdom
It is preferred that, at its first mention, both the title and description of HoneyRock are used: HoneyRock – Outdoor Center for Leadership Development of Wheaton College. Thereafter, use HoneyRock. (HoneyRock Camp should never be used.)
Use hyphens (not en-dashes) to separate numbers, months, and years; but never use a hyphen to replace the word “to” when preceded by “from.”
- 4:00-5:00 p.m.
- from 4:00 to 5:00 p.m.
- from September to June
Hyphens should be used for clarity when a compound adjective precedes a noun, and the omission of the hyphen would cause ambiguity. Do not hyphenate compounds formed by an adverb ending in “ly” plus an adjective or participle. Generally, if you are undecided about whether or not to hyphenate, don’t.
- Christ-centered education
- User-friendly website
- Nicely phrased sentence
- Self-motivated employees
- 100-year-old tradition
When forming nouns, adjectives, and verbs that indicate occupation or status, use a hyphen; for other combinations of words, you don’t need one.
24. Initials for Personal Names
A space should be placed between initials that are used as names, except when initials are used alone.
When used as Wheaton’s motto, “For Christ and His Kingdom” should be written in title case and placed within quotation marks (not italicized). If you are using the words - for Christ and his kingdom - as content, but not as the motto, note the differences in capitalization. No quotes are used.
All cardinal numbers above 10 are written as figures; all below 10 are spelled out. The number ten is a “swing” figure: spell it out when used alone or with numbers under ten; use the figure 10 if other numbers in the context are above 10. If one number in a sentence is written as a figure (above 10), all the rest of the numbers relating to the same class of things must be written as figures as well. This should hold true through the entire paragraph.
- He met with five alumni.
- They invited ten professors.
- She spoke to 10 students and 14 parents.
- There were 23 students in the class, and 5 came late.
- INCORRECT: There were 23 students in the class, and five came late.
Avoid beginning a sentence with a number, but if you must, spell it out.
- Two hundred and twenty-three people attended the event.
- The event was attended by 223 people.
- INCORRECT: 223 people attended the event.
(Note: Do not use superscripts when abbreviating ordinal numbers.)
Use a comma whenever numbers get into the thousands.
However, do not use a comma when referring to a year.
27. Titles of Events and Works of Visual and Performing Art
27.2. Double Quotation Marks
Place double quotation marks around the titles of
- speeches and lectures
- panel discussions
- art exhibitions
- short musical works (such as songs, or sonatas)
- individual episodes or segments of podcasts or webcasts
Italicize the titles of
- print newspapers, magazines, and journals
- long musical works (such as operas and symphonies)
- visual artworks (such as paintings)
- TV show series, and series of podcasts or webcasts
- sound and video recordings
- articles such as a, an, the
- the second part of a hyphenated compound (unless that second part is a proper noun, or adjective)
28. Unbiased Language
Writing should not equate a person's circumstances with that person's essential identity.
- "a homeless man" should be called "a man who is homeless"
Refer to someone's ethnicity or race only if it is relevant to what you are writing. When such a reference is called for, inquire about the preference of the person you are writing about.
- Use "humankind" instead of mankind
29. Wheaton's Academic Entities
29.1. Academic Divisions
Within the divisions, there are academic departments, centers, institutes, and programs.
Within the departments, there are degree programs, certificate programs, special programs, and centers and institutes.
Within the schools and divisions, there are degree programs, certificate programs, and centers and institutes.
For a full list of programs, please visit here.
When a list of degrees is presented to an audience related to Wheaton College Graduate School, the degrees should be listed with doctoral degrees first. When a list of degrees is presented to an audience related to Wheaton College, the degrees should be listed with bachelor's degrees first.
Names and Designations of Academic Divisions
- School of Biblical and Theological Studies
- School of Mission, Ministry, and Leadership
- School of Psychology, Counseling, and Family Therapy
- Division of Natural and Social Sciences
- Division of Humanities
- Division of the Conservatory, Arts, and Communication
- Division of Global and Experiential Learning
Division of Natural and Social Sciences
- Department of Applied Health Science
- Department of Biology
- Department of Chemistry
- Department of Geology and Environmental Science
- Department of Math and Computer Science
- Department of Physics and Engineering
- Department of Business and Economics
- Department of Education
- Department of Politics and International Relations
- Department of Sociology and Anthropology
- Department of Applied Linguistics and International Education
Division of Humanities
- Department of English
- Department of Modern and Classical Languages
- Department of History
- Department of Philosophy
Division of the Conservatory, Arts, and Communication
Division of Global and Experiential Learning
- Center for Urban Engagement
- Wheaton in Chicago
- HoneyRock, the Outdoor Center for Leadership Development of Wheaton College
- Human Needs and Global Resources
- Study Abroad
29.2. Centers and Institutes
Billy Graham Center
- Use BGC after first mention
- BGC is part of the School of Mission, Ministry, and Leadership
- The Billy Graham Center Archives and the Billy Graham Center Museum are not part of the BGC
Center for Applied Christian Ethics
Center for Urban Engagement
English Language Institute of China
- Use HoneyRock after first mention.
- HoneyRock Camp should never be used.
- HoneyRock is part of the Division of Global and Experiential Learning
Humanitarian Disaster Institute
Institute for Cross-Cultural Training
Opus: The Art of Work
Marion E. Wade Center
Wheaton Center for Faith, Politics, and Economics
Wheaton Center for Early Christian Studies
29.3. Other Academic Entities
Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps
- Billy Graham Center Museum
- Core Studies is the name of the department.
- Christ at the Core, part of Core Studies, is the name of Wheaton's general education curriculum.
- Also included in Core Studies are the Christ at the Core Fall Series, Core Book, the First Year Seminar, and the Advanced Integrative Seminar.
Library and Archives
Special Collections, Buswell Library
- When referring to the department of special collections, use "Special Collections, Buswell Library"
- Use "Special Collections" after the first mention.
- "college archives" is a collection within the Special Collections, and should not be used to refer to a location, department, facility, or the like. The collection documents the history of Wheaton College, and its predecessor, the Illinois Institute.