Roy Oksnevad is director of the Muslim Evangelism Ministry department of Wheaton College. The department is supported by the Billy Graham Center.
Interfaith Dialogue & The Need to Do Better
Recently, I attended a lecture at a local college to hear eminent Islamic scholar Seyyed Hossein Nasr. His topic was “The Future and Promise of Interfaith Dialogue.” Dr. Nasr has authored more than 20 books and is a professor of Islamic Studies at George Washington University.
Through the course of the evening, Dr. Nasr gave an historical perspective of some of the great Muslim initiatives in interfaith dialogue. Regrettably, he recognized that currently within the Islamic world there is a lack of dialogue. Muslim communities have resorted to violence that is Muslim-on-Muslim and in Africa and the Middle East Christians are being killed, churches are being burned, and Christians are fleeing for their lives. He noted that the Muslims who are better at dialogue were Sufi Muslims and suggested that the hope for true dialogue from an Islamic perspective would only happen if Muslims become Sufi.
My attempts at interfaith dialogue have not been stellar. I have been to international, regional, and local (with one mosque) interfaith initiatives. I walk away feeling that little if anything was accomplished. At these “official” interfaith initiatives, there are evangelizers and dialoguers.
Evangelizers, whether Christian or Muslim, use the occasion not to listen to each other, but to convince the other that they are wrong and need to convert. Dialoguers, whether Christian or Muslim, use the occasion to dance around the serious differences in a type of interfaith “group hug.” Christian dialoguers present a Savior-less message and Muslim dialoguers refer to the early Meccan revelations which are conciliatory and downplay the later violent Median texts for obvious reasons. True interfaith dialogue does not have the luxury of attacking the other or avoiding true differences.
What I have found most helpful is what can be termed “interfaith friendships” or “relational evangelism.” This is when people of different faiths meet and genuinely try to get to know each other on a personal basis. Rarely can this happen at “official” gatherings. It takes time to build friendships and develop trust. When the bridge of trust is established, dialogue can seriously handle the truth. True interfaith dialogue does not have the luxury of picking and choosing aspects upon which both sides agree, but must wrestle with the whole teaching—particularly where they disagree.
The purpose of interfaith dialogue is to get people of different faiths to start talking to each other about their concerns and differences. Dr. Nasr is right that from an Islamic perspective Sufis are much more conciliatory in interfaith dialogues. My hope for the future and promise of interfaith dialogue as a Christian is that when Christians take the time to build personal relationships with Muslims using James 1:19 as their model, “everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry.”
For those interested, I would recommend these great resources on interfaith dialogue:
A Muslim and a Christian in Dialogue by Badru D. Kateregga and David W. Shenk. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1980.
Muhammad and the People of the Book by Sahaja Carimokam. Xlibris, 2010.
Dialogue and Interfaith Witness with Muslims by Ray Register Jr., 1979.
Evangelical Interfaith Dialogue website >>
Have you had some good interfaith dialogue? We'd love to hear about them! Let's continue the conversation on our facebook page!
Posted May 24, 2013
Chris Castaldo is director of the Ministry of Gospel Renewal at the Billy Graham Center.
How Do You Cultivate Gospel Conversations? Step 1: Listen
We who have the greatest message in the world—the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ—ought to be the clearest and most compelling communicators. It's probably true that we evangelicals generally do well with one-way communication—preaching, lecturing, singing, and writing. It seems, however, that we are not always as strong with dialogue. We don't always listen carefully. We can be too verbose. We offer unsolicited opinions. We fail to notice. Or we allow ourselves to be distracted by thinking about our response while others are still speaking.
If we struggle in cultivating ordinary conversation, how can we possibly broach difficult faith discussions which tend to be wrought with deeply-held convictions, some of which are antagonistic to Christian faith? The key word here is “cultivating”. Like the farmer who prepares the soil before successfully planting a seed, a number of preparatory measures ought to precede gospel conversation.
Such measures grow out of prayer and worship—asking God to stimulate our affections and open doors for connecting with others. This much, I trust, is fairly obvious. It is the subsequent steps that I would like to consider. The first of which is the importance of noticing cues that highlight a person's openness God.
I use the word "openness" and not "interest" because it seems that the latter assumes a greater level of consciousness. The former is often true without full awareness. In other words, the human heart craves God even when the desire hasn't been consciously formulated. Thus, a friend may speak at some length about his or her area of need—a fear, anxiety, or an inexplicable angst—without every mentioning God, when in fact her words have cried out for God the entire time without realizing it. This is openness, and this is precisely what we need to recognize.
As you would expect, Jesus was an expert at identifying such cues. Whether it was at a well in Samaria or around those scummy tax collectors (including the little one who hung out in a tree), human hearts lay open before Christ's compassionate gaze. For instance, Matthew says of Jesus:
When he saw the crowds, he had compassion for them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd. Then he said to his disciples, "The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few; therefore pray earnestly to the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest." (Matt. 9:36-38)
Notice the order. Jesus was moved to compassion when he saw the crowds. Such compassion was instigated by a particular observation: "They were harassed and helpless." How is it possible to observe such details by simply looking at a large collection of people? That is, unless Jesus saw something more.
Seeing the heartache of our friends and loved ones requires us to consciously take the attention from ourselves and focus it on them. Pretty obvious, isn't it? But it's easier said than done. Here is an example of how it works.
It was in the early 19th century when a French professor of medicine, René Laennec, invented the stethoscope. In his classic treatise, De l'Auscultation Médiate (1819), Dr. Laennec explains how he was treating a young woman who appeared to be struggling with heart disease. On account of her corpulent frame, the young doctor struggled to hear the woman's heartbeat—that is, until he remembered a lesson he had recently learned from the field of acoustics. At once, he rolled a sheet of paper into a cylinder and applied one end to the patient's heart and the other to his ear. The clarity with which he heard the heartbeat was extraordinary. The stethoscope was born.
Every physician knows that attentive listening is a powerful requisite for healing, without which there is no diagnosis, and without a diagnosis there can be no personalized application of the remedy. Surely Jesus—the Great Physician—understood this when he looked upon the shepherdless crowd. With keen attention, our Lord diagnosed the crowd's harassed and helpless state, resulting in genuine compassion. In this pattern, we find a valuable lesson.
Listen with Intentionality
As a pastor of a local church, I enjoyed taking congregants to coffee and asking them to talk about the issues which most concerned them. It is remarkable how quickly folks will open up when they are given the opportunity. Honesty and vulnerability of a most remarkable quality would usually follow. In such situations, my job was simple to listen.
Listen for patterns.
Listen for underlying causes.
Listen for regrets.
Listen as through a stethoscope to identify the particular malady to which the good news of Jesus would bring healing.
I can give you dozens of examples of what I have learned on the hearing end of a decade of pastoral ministry, but let me share an occasion when a friend applied her ear to my heart. It was weeks after my father's cardiac arrest when this friend of the family engaged me in conversation about how I was handling it. I was in way over my head, singlehandedly running the family business. The water line of anxiety rose with each day until eventually I started having panic attacks. Into this dark valley my friend appeared with her questions.
Although I didn't know it at the time, my friend was applying the pattern of Jesus. She asked probing questions—honest, genuine, humble ones. Her posture wasn't that of a teacher or a sage preparing to impart wisdom; she was simply a friend listening attentively, finding cues that revealed my fears and insecurities. Finally, with some perspective on my angst, she winsomely applied God's promises of comfort and salvation.
In all of this, my friend not only cultivated gospel conversation. In a way she couldn't have fully grasped, she was also God's instrument for cultivating my soul, as evidenced by my conversion, which followed shortly thereafter. Indeed, this is what makes such an approach to conversation so exciting: we prepare the soil and plant the seeds, and sometimes—often when we least expect it—we get to witness the life-changing power of God.
What have you heard from not-yet-Christians as you've listened to them? Any gems of wisdom to share in cultivating gospel conversations? We'd love to hear about them! Let's continue the conversation on our facebook page!
Posted May 13, 2013
Karen Swanson is director of the Insitute for Prison Ministries at the Billy Graham Center.
Your Kingdom Come, Your Will Be Done, on Earth as It Is in Heaven
Every Sunday at my church we pray the Lord’s prayer. I would guess that many of us pray it out of habit without really thinking about what it means. Recently, I have been challenged by Jim Wallis through his book, On God’s Side, to think more deeply about the phrase “Your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” What does this phrase mean “now, in this life, in this world—in our lives, families, churches, neighborhoods, and nations” (p. 52)?
There is strong biblical support to live out our faith in this life.
- Do not merely listen to the word…Do what it says (James 1:22)
- Love your neighbor as yourself (Matt. 22:39)
- Love your enemy (Matt. 5:44)
- Whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me (Matt. 25:40)
- What does the Lord require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God (Micah 6:8)
Jesus modeled what our life should look like. He spent time with and served those who were marginalized by society—the prostitute, tax collectors, women, lepers, disabled, Samaritans, just to name a few. Who is marginalized today? Those who are homosexual, formerly incarcerated, poor, Muslims and other faiths, immigrants, minorities, disabled, the sex offender…whoever you name as “other”.
How do we bring God’s kingdom and will to earth?
It requires both standing up for justice and living it out.
It requires no longer being silent about justice issues, even if it challenges mainstream Christianity.
It requires both talking about how we are to love others and then not criticizing or bashing those who are marginalized.
It means inviting those who are homosexual, poor, or formerly incarcerated into my home.
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Matt.5:10)
At times, the persecution we experience may come from other Christians because we challenge the priorities of security and comfort.
Wallis encourages Christians to “take the place you live seriously. Make the context of your life and work the parish that you take responsibility for.” God gives each of us opportunities to live out his kingdom on earth. What opportunity has he given you?
Father, may YOUR kingdom come and YOUR will be done on earth as it is in heaven…
Have you been learning anything about what God's kingdom on earth looks like? We'd love to hear about it! Let's continue the conversation on our facebook page!
Posted May 5, 2013